About the Authors

Alexei A Sharov

Affiliation National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Yulan Piao

Affiliation National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Ryo Matoba

Affiliation National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Dawood B Dudekula

Affiliation National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Yong Qian

Affiliation National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Vincent VanBuren

Affiliation National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Geppino Falco

Affiliation National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Patrick R Martin

Affiliation National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Carole A Stagg

Affiliation National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Uwem C Bassey

Affiliation National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Yuxia Wang

Affiliation National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Mark G Carter

Affiliation National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Toshio Hamatani

Affiliation National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Kazuhiro Aiba

Affiliation National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Hidenori Akutsu

Affiliation National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Lioudmila Sharova

Affiliation National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Tetsuya S Tanaka

Affiliation National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Wendy L Kimber

Affiliation National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Toshiyuki Yoshikawa

Affiliation National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Saied A Jaradat

Affiliation National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Serafino Pantano

Affiliation National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Ramaiah Nagaraja

Affiliation National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Kenneth R Boheler

Affiliation National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Dennis Taub

Affiliation National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Richard J Hodes

Affiliations National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Dan L Longo

Affiliation National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

David Schlessinger

Affiliation National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Jonathan Keller

Affiliation Basic Research Program, SAIC–Frederick, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, Maryland, United States of America

Emily Klotz

Affiliation National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, United States of America

Garnett Kelsoe

Affiliation Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

Akihiro Umezawa

Affiliation National Research Institute for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, Japan

Angelo L Vescovi

Affiliation Institute for Stem Cell Research, Ospedale San Raffaele, Milan, Italy

Janet Rossant

Affiliation Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Tilo Kunath

Affiliation Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Brigid L. M Hogan

Affiliation Duke University Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina, United States of America

Anna Curci

Affiliation Institute of Genetics and Biophysics, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Naples, Italy

Michele D'Urso

Affiliation Institute of Genetics and Biophysics, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Naples, Italy

Janet Kelso

Affiliation South African National Bioinformatics Institute, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa

Winston Hide

Affiliation South African National Bioinformatics Institute, University of the Western Cape, Bellville, South Africa

Minoru S. H Ko

To whom correspondence should be addressed. E-mail: KoM@grc.nia.nih.gov

Affiliation National Institute on Aging, Baltimore, Maryland, United States of America

Competing Interests

The authors have declared that no conflicts of interest exist.

Author Contributions

MSHK conceived and designed the experiments. YP, RM, GF, PRM, CAS, UCB, YW, MGC, TH, KA, HA, LS, TST, WLK, TY, SAJ, SP, and MSHK performed the experiments. AAS, YP, RM, DBD, YQ, VV, GF, J. Kelso, WH, and MSHK analyzed the data. RN, KRB, DDT, RJH, DLL, DS, J. Keller, EK, GHK, AU, AV, JR, TK, BLMH, AC, MD, J. Kelso, and WH contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools. AAS, YP, RM, VV, GF, and MSHK wrote the paper.